effect of dust (feature image)


Definition: – Dust according to Longman active study dictionary is or are very small bits of dirty or soil that looks like powder.


1. In our homes
2. In offices
3. On the road and highway
4. In construction site (Our focus


There are different particles in the dust such as soil, human hair, animal waste, grass, gravel dust (from quarry and crushing plant), chemical substances. organic and inorganic matters.


Skin contact: dust could cause irritation to the skin and also give allergic reaction, dermatitis and skin rash
Eye contact: dust is a foreign body when it gets in touch with the eye could cause lacrimation (excessive tears) and also cause infection on the white spot on the eye (conjunctivitis) on the eye lid (blephritis)

 Inhalation: – inhalation of dust could irritate the nose causing common cold, trigger up asthmatic attack on an asthmatic patient. can cause a lot of respiratory diseases. Upper or lower respiratory diseases such as: –
a. Sore throat
b. Laryngitis
c. Pneumonia
d. Pneumothorax
e. Bronchitis, etc.
Ear contact– dust can block the ear causing hearing impairment (as a result of impacted cerumen)



a. Always wear long-sleeved overall uniform provided by the company
b. All Quarry and crushing plant workers are advised to always wear 100% cotton underwear
c. Always wear your safety boot provided by the company.
d. Always put on your safety glasses
e. Always wear face mask (or use hand towel) to cover your nose and mouth
f. Always put on your hand gloves to prevent injuries

2. Always remember to wash your hands and face before and after eating. drinking, smoking or using toilet
3. Put on your helmet always, welders should always put on their welding glasses.
4. Electricians should always safeguard them self from electricity.
5. Ear protector should be given to quarry and crusher workers as a safety measure.

Finally, health is wealth, safety measures are for you and not for the management or the company. If you want to live long, protects yourself by adhering to safety measures.

Most of the complications of the respiratory diseases surface after we might have left the company, so why not reason today when the sun shine to safeguard our tomorrow.

Presented by Olushola A. Kolawole (RN)
House unit Chairman (Salini Nigeria limited, Idu Site Abuja.)

This article was originally published in the Nigeria Construction Digest Vol 4 No. 5 June 2013. Images from www,google.com

workplace health and safety


By: lyenoma T. Osazee (M.Sc., MNISP, CMIOSH) Chartered Occupational Safety and Health Practitioner (UK)
lyenoma T. Osazee

New employees have far more serious on-the-job injuries than do experienced employees. New employees should be properly oriented and made familiar with the workplace before being allowed to operate. There should be specific trainings designed to get the new employees over this period when most accidents happen. They are advised to listen carefully to all the trainings and be sure to ask questions if clarifications are needed.

You are entitled to a reasonable safety training before you use any tool, machine, or equipment. If you are assigned to a new job (or told to use a new machine or tool) and you have not been given thorough and complete safety instruction, speak up; you are entitled to receive thorough safety training on that new operation, no matter what your background or level of experience might be If you observe an employee who is impaired at work by alcohol or drugs, tell the health and safety coordinator or Human Resource Manager before someone is hurt or killed. Inspect tools and equipment before using them.  Before using any tool or machine, stop and inspect the device to make sure it is safe to operate. Pay special attention to guards and other safety devices.

Keep your work area clean. Objects on the floor can create a slip or trip hazard. Don’t walk past a slipping or tripping hazard, even if it is not in your area. Pick it up or report it. Accumulations of trash can cause fires. Don’t rush; it’s better late than never. Many accidents occur in the rush to get something done fast. Take your time, follow all work and safety rules, and get the job done safely. Walk, don’t run. No job is so “hot” that you should disregard safety practices. Watch where you are walking. We know of accidents that occurred when employees did not watch where they were walking and walked into: raised fork truck forks, sharp corners of sheet metal, the ends of metal pallet bands that were recently cut, and into the path of a backing fork truck.

Read the operating manual before using any new power tool or machine. These days, there’s an operating manual for just about everything. If you don’t have a hard copy, you can probably find one online. Much of the operating manual will be devoted to how to safely operate the machine. Read and follow the recommended safety procedures you find in the operating manual.

Safety loves consistency. Formal safety procedures are usually in place for those routine production jobs that most of us perform day in and day out. But, when something unusual or unexpected happens, these rules are sometimes not enough to protect you. Anytime there is an: equipment breakdown, change in procedures, or surprise please take a moment to reflect on what new hazards exist and how to address them.

Plan safety into every single job. Before beginning any job, have the right tools on hand and the needed Personal Protective Equipment. If there is a job Safe Operating Procedures, SOP or a safety Job Safety Analysis (or Job Hazard Analysis) review and understand them before starting work.

No cell phones at work. As with driving a car, using a cell phone (or texting) while working can be a dangerous distraction. I’ve observed employees driving a forklift while using a cell phone. Cell phones are addictive; if you allow employees to have them at work, they will use them if they think no one is watching. Cleanliness is next to godliness. Wash your hands before eating. Don’t eat in the work areas. If you spill chemicals on your clothing. immediately change the clothing and wash the affected part of the body.

If you suspect something might be dangerous either don’t do it, or discuss it with your supervisor or the safety person. Also. if you have a safety suggestion, we want to hear about it. Good suggestions are always given serious consideration.

Don’t use an air hose for cleaning your body or clothing. It could blow particles into your eyes, rupture an ear drum or cause an intestinal metabolism. Radios, stereos, and boom boxes should not be used in the workplace especially factory premises. These devices make communications more difficult, significantly add to plant noise levels, and may even contribute to hearing losses.

Never walk up to an employee who is in the process of operating a machine or power tool. You may startle them; and that could lead to an accident. Wait until there’s a lull in the action before walking up to the employee. Practical jokes have no place on the work floor. It’s not funny or acceptable to play jokes on people at work. What you think may be a humorous practical joke could end up hurting someone had, getting you fired, or landing you in jail if they are hurt in the process. Save your distracting humour and playful games for off the job.

Stay on the “safe side” of things.  On some machines (or operations) there is a “safe side” and there is an “unsafe side”. It is better to be on the safe side if possible.

Fork trucks travel forwards and backwards. It is usually safer to be to the side of a fork truck rather than in front of or at the back of one. The side of a grinding wheel is usually safer than in front of one.

The side of a grinding wheel is usually safer than in front of one. Standing on the side of a table saw when ripping is usually safer than standing in line with the blade. When lifting a large I—beam (girder) or heavy plate with a bridge crane, it is usually safer to be at the end of the beam/girder/plate than beside it.

If the crane/hook/chain/sling should fail, the object will usually fall to the ground and then onto its’ side. The end is often the safest place to be if the load falls. If you drop something, get out of the way, don’t try to catch it. If something falls at work, chances are pretty good that it could be heavy, sharp, hot, or caustic. Many back injuries and cuts have occurred from employees trying to catch falling objects. Get in the habit of stepping away from falling objects as fast as you can Learn to resist the urge to try catch something you drop. Y01 employer will not punish you for letting it drop.

By: lyenoma T. Osazee (M.Sc., MNISP, CMIOSH)
Chartered Occupational Safety and Health Practitioner (UK)

Note: This article was originally published in The Nigerian Construction Digest Vol 1 No.4 2016. All images /pictures are from www.google.com



Sexual assault teaches victims that their bodies are not really their own. Victims often report feelings such as shame, terror, and guilt, and many blames themselves for the assault. In the aftermath of a sexual assault, survivors face extremely difficult and painful emotions and experiences. Every survivor responds to traumatic events in their own way. It is important to note that:

 Sexual assault is never a victim’s fault. Sexual assault is a crime motivated by a need to control, humiliate, and harm. If the victim does not fight the acts, it does not mean consent. Also, when sexual assault is referred to as the act of “forcing a victim to perform sexual acts…”  that ‘force‘ does not only mean physical force, but includes manipulation, coercion, threats, and situations where a person is unable to give consent. Sexual assault can have a variety of short- and -long term effects on a victim’s mental health.

Some of the mental health challenges survivors of sexual assault face include:

Depression: The loss of bodily autonomy is often difficult to cope with. It can create feelings of hopelessness, despondency, and lead to diminished sense of self-worth. These feelings can lead to depression that may range from mild and fleeting to intense and debilitating.

Anxiety. For many people who struggle with anxiety, the feelings have no clear source. But for sexual assault survivors, the loss of bodily autonomy, in addition to the fear that the attack could happen again, can cause intense anxiety. Some may develop agoraphobia (The fear of being in large or unknown public places. This phobia is associated with panic attacks and anxiety and often results in an individual’s avoiding public situations that might make escape difficult.) and become terrified to leave their homes. Others suffer panic attacks, symptoms of i physical anxiety, or a chronic tear of the type at person who harmed them. Someone who was raped by a tall, dark man with full beard may instinctively dislike, mistrust, or tear all men encountered who match that description.

Trauma caused by sexual abuse
Trauma caused by sexual abuse

Posttraumatic Stress: Posttraumatic stress (PTSD) might be described in this case as anxiety, depression, and intense memories of the assault. Intensely disruptive flashbacks may occur, and in some cases, they might even cause an assault survivor to lose track of the surroundings. A related condition, complex posttraumatic stress (C-PTSD), yields symptoms of traditional PTSD as well as a chronic fear of abandonment. Some people with C-PTSD also experience personality disruptions.

W Including not being able to focus on work or on schoolwork, as well as not feeling present in everyday situations.

Personality disruptions:  Some evidence suggests that personality disruptions such as borderline personality can sometimes be the result of sexual assault, especially sexual abuse. The behavior associated with these personality disruptions could be an adoption to abuse. For instance, a characteristic of borderline personality is a fear of abandonment. While that fear might not make sense in adulthood, avoiding abandonment might have been what protected someone from childhood abuse

Attachment disruptions:  It can be challenging, particularly in children who have been abused, to form healthy attachments with others. Adults who were abused as children may experience insecure attachment patterns, struggle with intimacy, or be too eager to form close attachments.

Types of mental health disorders
Types of mental health disorders

Sexual assault does not only leave psychological scars. It can also have long-lasting health consequences. A person who is assaulted may sustain bruises and cuts or more severe injuries such as knife wounds, sprained or broken bones, and torn or damaged genitals. Some victims develop sexually transmitted infections. Others may become pregnant as the result of an attack. Survivors may also experience health concerns such as chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, fertility problems, and decreased immunity, as well as other unexplained aches, pains, or illnesses.

Causes of abuse
Forms of domestic violence

Victims with previous history of sexual trauma and who have experienced mor negative reactions from family, friend: and professionals end up with worse impact of sexual violence on mental health. Because sexual trauma can have such a serious impact on mental health it’s important that the public is trauma informed and services/supports consider and address the trauma that man individuals have experienced.

Let’s stop domestic violence
Let’s show concern to victims of abuse and domestic violence

If you have concerns about your mental health, take a mental health screen: Iieoma Ndukwe is the founder of Share Anonymous Initiative. Share Anonymous is an ongoing project dedicated the curating data on sexual violence in Nigeria, and Africa. At Share Anonymous survivors can share their stories of sexual violence anonymously, join the community (Share Anonymous Form- for solidarity and support in their recover journey, and find expert information on: resources on sexual violence and the affecting trauma. Our details are 0 follows:

Web address – www.shareanonymous.org
Facebook – Share Anonymous
lnstagram – @share_anonymous
Twitter – @ShareAnonymous

Note: Article originally published in The Nigerian Construction Digest Vol 1 No. 6 July, 2019,.All images/pictures are from www.google.com